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Author Archive: David Greene

How Does a Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) Work?

There are times when a couple is not ready to have another child yet there are concerns about the embryos that have been accumulated during an IVF cycle. What will happen to these embryos if they are not transferred to the woman when the cycle comes to an end? The good news is that they can be cryopreserved, and then safely stored until the woman is ready to conceive again.

When the woman makes this decision the frozen embryo can be thawed, and then the transfer to her uterus can be made when she is at the right point in her menstrual cycle. This particular procedure is called Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET).

The same steps have to be taken as that for standard embryo transfer. Which means the woman has to go through the regular blood tests and have the ultrasounds done to confirm the best time in her cycle to make the transfer. The fertility specialist may also deem that it is necessary for the woman to go on a prescribed dose of hormone medication, but this is not always necessary.

Natural FET


Women who are going to undergo natural FET may not have to take any form of hormone supplements, or if they do it will be minimal.

Programmed FET


This is usually referred to as medicated FET. What it means is that hormone medication will be prescribed that will help with the preparation of the lining of uterus, so it will more readily accept the embryo that has been thawed and is ready for transplantation.

The Transfer Procedure


Once the Los Angeles fertility specialist feels comfortable the lining of the uterus is at its fullest receptiveness the transplant is ready to be performed. The embryo is not thawed out by the lab staff until the day of the transfer. The actual procedure is usually quick and simple, and does not require a hospital stay or any type of sedation.

Transfer Procedure Follow Up


Following the procedure the woman will return to her fertility specialist to have a pregnancy test done. If the test proves positive the patient now goes under the care of an obstetrician. Around the 7th week of the pregnancy this specialist should be able to detect a fetal heartbeat.

The success rate for the FET procedure is quite high. It gives women comfort in knowing that their embryos can be safely taken care of through the freezing procedure until they are ready to be used. Plus, the woman who is having this procedure done doesn’t have to go through the entire IVF cycle.

With the advancement in technology today there are advanced vitrification methods being used to freeze the embryos, which is far better than the methods used in the 1980s which were slow freezing techniques.

There is of course a cost involved to have the embryos frozen which can range around $800. Then there is the added cost for the implantation of the thawed embryo which can amount to around $4,000. Although, this will vary from one clinic to another.

Pacific Reproductive Center offers all types of assisted reproductive procedures at four Los Angeles metro locations with expert specialists. Call us today for treatment in Glendale, Torrance, Irvine or Corona!




Which Infertility Treatment Would Be Your Best Option?

With the modern technology of today and the ongoing advancements in the treatment of infertility, there are many options to be considered for fertility treatments. Not only do these treatments bring hope for couples who want to conceive, but they offer choices. Infertile couples can make informed decisions as to what they feel would be the best treatment to participate in.


In Vitro Fertilization is one of the most well-known infertility treatments and is considered to be highly successful. It has been estimated that over 3 million babies throughout the world have been born as a result of IVF. The IVF procedure also offers some additional options within it, which gives the infertile couple some more options.

Oral Medication

Depending on what is determined to be the cause of your infertility there may be medication that can be prescribed to help with you become fertile. For women whose ovaries will not release the eggs a medication called Clomiphene may help. It has been indicated that about half of the women who are prescribed this medication will within about three cycles become pregnant. However, it is not usual for the pregnancy to consist of twins or even more babies. This is because the medication stimulates the ovaries to release more than one egg during each cycle.

Hormone Injections

For those women where Clomiphene has not been successful the fertility specialist may order injectable hormones. There are various drugs that can be used for this. Women who are able to ovulate often find they achieve success with this form of treatment. There is more of a chance of becoming pregnant with twins or more with this form of fertility treatment.


This is intrauterine insemination. It is a procedure that is sometimes used in conjunction with drugs that are being used to encourage ovulation. In this procedure the sperm is placed directly into the uterus during ovulation but is not injected directly into the egg. It is less expensive and not as complicated as IVF, but it is also not quite as successful.


This is a procedure called intracytoplasmic sperm injection. This is a beneficial procedure when infertility is a problem for the male who has very low or weak sperm. The egg of the woman has been extracted and once it has become fertilized the sperm will be injected with the sperm while in the lab. The woman will then go through the IVF procedure.

These are just some of the more common forms of infertility treatments. There are several others besides these, and some of the treatments are used in conjunction with each other. It can be difficult to make a choice, but listening to the advice of experts like your Los Angeles fertility Doctor will help you make the right decision. Knowing the cause of your infertility greatly helps in finding the right solution. With so many different fertility treatments being available today, it greatly increase the chances of a couple being able to go full term with the pregnancy and deliver a healthy baby.

Call Pacific Reproductive Center today for the top fertility treatment at four locations in the Los Angeles metro area!

What is Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection for Infertility?

Infertility can be as a result of either the man or the woman not being able to reproduce. There can be several causes for this in either gender. One such problem can occur with the sperm in the male. There can be a solution for this, and it is called ICSI which stands for Intracytoplasmic sperm injection. It sounds kind of scary but in fact it is not that difficult of a procedure and one that can be quite successful in helping a couple conceive.

What is ICSI?


This is a procedure where a single sperm collected from the male is injected into a mature egg from the woman. Once the egg has been fertilized in this manner the egg is then carefully placed in the woman’s uterus.

What is the Objective of ICSI?


The main goal of the ICSI procedure is to help scale up the success of the fertilization phase that takes place with In Vitro Fertilization.

The Male’s Preparation for Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection


First, the sperm from the male has to be obtained. This can either be done by the man masturbating to eject the sperm, or if this is not possible then a surgical procedure is conducted. This entails removing some of the sperm from a testicle after a small incision has been made to access it. Sometimes this procedure is necessary because the male has a blockage that prevents ejaculation of the sperm. If it has been detected that the male may only have minimal sperm in the semen it may be recommended that they go through a genetic screening before proceeding with the ICSI procedure.

The Woman’s Preparation for ICSI


fertility clinic Torrance CAThe eggs from the female will need to be collected. In order to prepare for this the woman must receive a daily injection that can either be FSH or gonadotrophin. This is so the ovaries can be stimulated into producing multiple eggs. To ensure that everything is progressing as expected, tests will be conducted after the first week to see where the estrogen levels are at.

Also, an ultrasound will be done to determine if the eggs in the follicles are maturing. If all is going as expected then an HCG injection is given to encourage the fully developed eggs to mature. Within a 34 to 36 hour period following this injection the now mature eggs are collected through a needle aspiration. Or, if necessary through a surgical procedure called a laparoscopy.

The Transfer


A small glass tube is the vessel that is used to put one single sperm into with each collected egg. This egg now containing the sperm will be housed in a lab overnight. The next day the eggs are inspected to see if they have fertilized. There is then a 3 to 5 day incubation period for the eggs that fertilized successfully. 

From this collection of fertilized eggs that have developed further, at least one or more is then placed into the uterus by a catheter being inserted into the cervix. It may be suggested that the rest of the embryos be frozen so they can be used in the future.

Pacific Reproductive Center offers top assisted reproduction treatments including ICSI, IVF, genetic selection and more! Call us today for a consultation at any one of our four LA metro area locations.

How does an EmbryoScope Help with Fertility?

Any couple that is dealing with infertility soon gets introduced to a whole realm of new terminology when they are seeking out solutions. One term that they may come across is EmbryoScope.

What is an EmbryoScope?


This is a device that has the ability to maintain the physiological conditions that an embryo needs when they are being housed in an IVF laboratory. It is an incubator that possesses a time lapse system and a camera. As the embryo develops this system and camera is able to capture the images and then record them in video form.

This is a highly important piece of equipment that the embryologist can count on for monitoring the embryo.  While the embryo is in the incubator cell divisions can be monitored and studies of the embryo’s development can be tracked.

What is the Value of The Embryoscope findings?


Some of the recent findings are that certain events that take place along with cell time points might help with being able to predict the potential for embryo development and the potential for pregnancy. With the information the Embryoscope is able to provide it can help with this.

By making use of these time points it can allow for the selection of the best of the embryos from the collection, plus determine how viable those embryos will be. The cell division pattern that can be captured with this device can be considered as a valuable resource for choosing the embryo that could be the best for implanting in the patient’s uterus through IVF.

It takes a time lapse camera to be able to capture these time points. In the past this has not been possible with the use of a microscope because time points between embryos may not be the same.

This new technology is showing a great deal of promise with some of the studies backing this up. It is indicated that there may be a 15 to 20% increase in the chance of a pregnancy developing.

Standard Embryos Selection


Without the use of the Embryoscope, the standard selection of the embryo for IVF or ICSI is used.  The embryos are housed in a highly controlled environment that mimics what a woman’s body would be like. They are kept in heated incubators.

These embryos are contained in small lab dishes which are periodically removed from the incubator so they can be checked for development which should be occurring at specific times.  They are placed under a microscope for this observation.  The findings of this examination will help to determine which of the embryos are most likely to succeed in a successful pregnancy. These observations must be done quickly so the embryos can be returned to the heated incubators.

All indications are that the Embryoscope has the technology to allow for better choosing of which embryo would be the better choice for transplantation. This greatly helps to increase the chances of a successful pregnancy for those going through IVF.  An added and very important benefit of the Embryoscope may be in its use for helping to predict if an embryo is chromosomally abnormal.

This is just another one of the many advancements that is being made to help couples experience the joy of a full term pregnancy and the birth of a healthy infant.

Pacific Reproductive Center offers top fertility treatments at 4 locations in the greater Los Angeles area. Call us today!

Why Can’t I Get Pregnant? The Emotional Impact of Unexplained Infertility

If you have just received the news that you and your partner are suffering from unexplained infertility, the shock may be so great that you might feel as if you have just been punched. Or you could be numb – trying to take it all in. You’ve been trying for so long and going to see a specialist was the light at the end of the tunnel.  They would find out what was wrong and fix it for you. At last you’d both allowed yourselves a glimmer of hope that you were getting nearer to your dream of starting a family.

Many people have heard of couples with a problem with “her” or a problem with “him”. Her eggs aren’t right, his sperm aren’t right…and so it goes on. But you don’t often hear people say “They don’t know what is wrong”.

For a specialist to admit to you that they don’t know what is stopping your from having a baby is absolutely devastating. If they don’t know – what on earth are you supposed to do now? Couples have reported feeling as if they’re on a sinking ship and the last lifeboat has just left without them.

There have been so many medical advances – how can they not know? It defies belief.

Anxiety levels go up

Because no one can give you a reason, you become more anxious than you were before. There are moments when you wish you’d been told that you just couldn’t have a child because then you could grieve and move forward with your lives. This frustrating, disappointing, crushing blow leaves you in a no man’s land where you just don’t know what to do next. You don’t even have any power in the situation and so you may start to feel helpless.

It’s little wonder that anxiety and depression are the most common emotions experienced by people who have Fertility Center Corona CAjust been given the diagnosis of unexplained infertility. Those two emotions bring a great risk of developing depression – which is all you need right now.

Your anxiety increases because no one can identify the cause. Even if the result of those interminable, painful, intrusive tests had been that you or your partner could not have a biological child, at least then you could grieve and move on.

You may crave support, warmth and understanding from your family and friends but they may appear to not know what to say to help. Why should they? You don’t know what to do either. Instead of a safe haven of understanding you may feel awkward and stressed around them as if you have to apologise for upsetting them.

Now comes the part that may help to get your back on your feet again. A study found that three years afer unsuccessful attempts at IVF, couples with unexplained infertility were suffering from unresolved grief. They had just pushed it down and hoped it would go away.

Not surprisingly, the study recommended that couples should get counseling to help with their feelings. There are counselors who specialize in helping infertile couples and you can bet that they have come across how you are feeling and will be able to pull that last lifeboat back and sit you safely in it.

Can Stress Lead to Infertility?

One of the worst things that you can say to a person dealing with infertility is “Just relax and it will happen.” [1] There is some truth in this as research is finding that stress may impact negatively on the production of both sperm and eggs [2] The truth is that stress impacts on all of your body so that is not surprising news. The truth is that stress is caused by infertility. And you can’t begin to imagine how much stress. fertility doctorThis is so difficult for your friend so try not to use clichéd phrases that can be very hurtful. Trying to tell someone to relax when they are probably the most stressed out that they have ever been is not only tactless – it’s going to cause more stress. Not helpful.

It’s a medical fact that if a couple conceive after months of ‘relaxing’ they are not truly infertile. In order for a couple to be classed as infertile, they have to have been trying for a baby for a year – with no success. Many infertility Physicians won’t even see a couple until they have had that year of trying. And that has to be pretty stressful.

Infertile women are particularly at risk from well meaning but ultimately thoughtless and unhelpful people telling them to ‘Have a romantic meal and a bottle of wine’ or ‘Take a relaxing holiday somewhere.’ It is highly likely that the woman already feels she must be doing something wrong which is a huge burden to carry and it’s not even true. It is much more likely that she has an undiagnosed (or diagnosed) physical issue that is stopping her from conceiving a baby.

These comments are particularly upsetting if they come from someone that the infertile couple don’t know very well. For all you know, they may have endured surgery, hormone treatments, inseminations and the indignity and embarrassment of being prodded an probed by numerous Doctors.

Infertility is not a state of mind. It is a medical condition which is diagnosed and treated as much as possible. You need to bear in mind that even with treatment, some couples may never realise their dream of building a family. Relaxing, holidays and a positive attitude do not cure medically diagnosed infertility so please, please don’t suggest it.

If you genuinely want to help (and we’re sure you do) it’s an interesting exercise to visit a forum for infertile people and it won’t take you long to find threads of comments about insensitive things that have been said to them. Try,,

We do understand how difficult it is when you are only trying to help, so here are some things not to say, courtesy of The National Infertility Association RESOLVE Some of them will make you wince but these are all the sort of comments that infertile couples face. We have added our thoughts in brackets to some of them. Their number one offender is…you guessed it…

  • “Just relax…”Fertility Center Corona CA
  • “Just enjoy being able to sleep late…travel…etc.,”
  • “There are worse things that could happen” (Oh, that’s all right then. Seriously?)
  • ‘Maybe God doesn’t intend for you to be a mother.’ (Oooh, that’s an awful one!)
  • “Why aren’t you trying IVF?”
  • “Why don’t you just adopt?”
  • “You’re young – you have plenty of time to get pregnant.”
  • “I’ll donate the sperm” (ouch…can we say crude?)




Sperm and Embryo Freezing & Storage

Freezing Sperm & Storage

Scientists and researchers have started freeing sperm for decades. Sperm samples are frozen and stored until needed. The frozen process is tolerated well. There are many reasons why sperm are stored frozen. Some are stored frozen for convenience (for example, the male partner will be travelling on the day his female partner is due for insemination). For some men, surgeries can be performed to harvest sperm and the sperm is frozen and stored in several batches to prevent the need of going through the surgery again in the future. For some men, their sperm numbers are low and their sperm is hence stored cumulatively to allow the couple to go through in vitro fertilization (artificial insemination). Sperm freezing may also be recommended for those who are anxious about producing sperm sample on the day of insemination.

Once sperm is thawed, it is normal for some of the sperm to die. Since most sperm samples have millions of live sperm, there is no consequence to losing a fraction of them due to thawing. Individuals who opt for sperm freezing includes: cancer patients, pre-vasectomy patients, military personnel, police officers, firefighters, high impact athletes, transgender clients and advancing paternal age.

Human embryo freezing and storing

The first human embryo was successfully frozen in 1984. Embryo freezing is routine after in vitro fertilization and approximately 60% end up with embryos in storage. Freezing of excess good quality embryo allows for the transfer of less embryos and avoiding higher-order pregnancies such as twins or triplets which may compromise the mother’s health. This also provides patients with a back-up if the first embryo does not result in pregnancy. Embryos can be frozen at any stage of the development. They tolerate freeing extremely well. Pregnancy rates with frozen embryos are comparable to fresh embryos that are transferred without ever being frozen.

What is embryo storage

PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC TESTING                  Embryo storage is preservation of the embryo in the cold for future use. To collect eggs, women are given fertility drugs to stimulate the ovaries to produce more eggs.  Patients who use embryo storage are patients who are undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intra cytoplasmic injection (ICSI). These are methods of fertility treatment procedures to help couples who are diagnosed with infertility. Other patients who opt for embryo storage include women who are concerned with their future fertility, cancer patients, military personnel, police officers, firefighters, high impact athletes, transgender clients and more. It is more cost effective to go through egg collection only once and have the unused embryos stored instead of collecting eggs before every treatment.

How are embryos thawed?

The embryos that are taken out of the freezer are warmed to room temperature in 3 seconds. The rapid thaw method minimizes the damage to the embryos. After the thawing process is performed at room temperature, the embryo is warmed up to body temperature (37 Celsius) and can be ready for transfer 40 minutes after leaving the freezer.


Early Pregnancy Obesity Linked to Fetal and Infant Death

In a 2005 Los Angeles study, researchers found that one out of five adults is obese. Currently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that 70% (two-thirds) of Americans are overweight and 37% (roughly one-third) are considered obese. What’s more shocking is that 6% have extreme obesity.


With early pregnancy obesity, the woman is at risk for fetal and infant death and maternal pregestational diabetes. This 2011 study was the first to examine the continuous relationship between body mass index (BMI) and fetal/infant deaths. The investigators have linked data on single birth pregnancies from 3 regional registers in the United States.


Miscarriage or spontaneous fetal death is any loss of pregnancy at 20 weeks gestation or more. Infant death is any loss of a child from birth up to one year. Underweight is considered a BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2, obese as a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more, and recommended BMI as 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2. The crude and adjusted odds ratios of spontaneous fetal death and infant death among obese, overweight, and underweight women were determined using the logistic regression model. The study found that risks for fetal and infant death were greatly increased for obese women.


In reference to the categories, no significant excess risks were seen for those underweight or overweight. For the obese women, no specific cause of death was found to explain the increased odds of fetal or infant death, except for slight higher rates for preeclampsia among stillbirths. Experts are unsure why obesity is associated with fetal and infant death, but not exactly sure why. It is noted that there is a risk for increased blood pressure and diabetes during pregnancy, but how obesity is related to miscarriage is not yet known.


Most women will deliver a healthy baby, regardless of weight. However, women who are struggling with fertility should consider weight loss before conception. Current research shows that this gives the baby the best possible start in life. Women should attempt to lose weight during the pregnancy, but should also ensure that they eat a balanced, healthy diet and avoid excess high-fat, high-calorie foods.


fertility doctorA team of researchers based in the US and Sweden decided to test the theory that maternal weight was related to infant mortality. They analyzed over 1.8 million birth records from 1992 to 2010. The causes of death among these infants included birth asphyxia, congenital anomalies, infections, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The results were adjusted for maternal height, age, smoking, country of birth, education, and year of delivery.


A total of 5,428 infant deaths were noted during the study, which was 2.9 per 1,000 infants born. Of these deaths, two-thirds occurred during the neonatal period (first 28 days of life). As noted in the study, the infant mortality rates went up with increasing maternal BMI in early pregnancy, with 6 deaths per 1,000 women with obesity. When compared to infants of normal weight mothers and those only mildly obese, whereas mothers with obesity grade 2 or 3 had more than doubled risks of infant mortality.


In the study, the association between infant mortality and maternal weight was confined to the first 37 weeks gestation in the neonatal period (within 28 days of birth). Infant mortality is associated with obesity grade 2-3 in preterm births. Also, 81% of infant deaths in term infants were due to birth asphyxia, congenital anomalies, SIDS, infections, and other neonatal morbidities.

Do Antidepressants Lead to Miscarriages or Autism?

According to current research, certain antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should only be prescribed for serious mental health conditions. Depression is more than simply feeling down in the dumps. It is a serious mental health issue, which involves the brain. These feelings often interfere with daily routines and can be mild to severe. canstockphoto45542488According to the World Health Organization, major depression affects 15.7 million adults in the United States, which is approximately 6.5%.

In the past 20 years, use of antidepressants has increased by 400%, and they are the most commonly used medications for people ages 18-44 years, which is the childbearing years for women. In addition, women in their late 30s and early 40s are more likely to experience infertility.

SSRI’s and Increased Risk for Miscarriage

Elevated risk for miscarriage, early delivery, infant health complications, and autism are associated with SSRIs, according to a study from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Infertility and depression are two complex conditions that often go hand in hand. Lead research Alice Domar and colleagues conducted a large review of studies involving women with depression who took SSRIs while pregnant.

Three main findings stood out in the review of studies. First, there was concerning, clear evidence that SSRI during pregnancy was associated with risk of miscarriage. Women taking these drugs have worse pregnancy outcomes. Second, there was no proof of benefit or evidence that these medications lead to better outcomes for babies and moms. Finally, the researchers concluded that patients, obstetrics physicians, and the general public should be fully aware of these research findings.

Miscarriage Risk Statistics

Overall, risks for miscarriage are:

  • A 75% increased risk associated with Paxil, a commonly prescribed SSRI.
  • A 68% increased risk women using any antidepressant compared to women who do not use antidepressants.
  • A 61% increased risk for use of any SSRI antidepressant.
  • A 19% increased risk for women with a history of depression.

SSRIs and Autism

In a new study from the University of Montreal, researchers found that women taking antidepressants in the last trimester had an 87% increased risk for delivering a child who will be later diagnosed with autism. Additionally, taking SSRIs increased the canstockphoto45750520risk of the diagnosis. Around 1 in 68 children are diagnosed with autism, according to the CDC, and this rate has continued to increase over the last three decades. Additionally, in the U.S., around 4.5% of women take an antidepressant during pregnancy.

In another study at John Hopkins University, researchers Berard and associates found that boys with autism were 3 times more likely to have been exposed to SSRIs during the pregnancy than girls. In a 2014 meta-analysis of studies, these researchers also found an increased risk for autism when children were exposed to SSRI antidepressants in utero.

Women should consult with their doctors before immediately stopping antidepressants, according to experts. Dr. King of the Seattle Children’s Autism Center emphasizes that many studies show a genetic overlap in women who have depression and children with autism. It appears that people who have a family history of depression also have an increased risk for delivering a child who will be diagnosed with autism.

King also believes these studies do not provide a definitive answer as to how or why antidepressants increase the risk for child autism. The increased risk of autism translates into one additional child born with the disorder for every 200 mothers who continue their SSRI medications during pregnancy.

Your Fertility Diet & Conceiving

                  Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after a year of regular intercourse (at least twice a week). In the United States, 10.9% of women aged 15-44 have impaired fertility. There are many states that offer minimal or no insurance coverage for fertility treatments, this can be an expensive ordeal. Many turn to claims that supplements, complementary medicine and other measures to aid them. There have also been discussions on how diet and nutrition can aid fertility.canstockphoto45557864

                  It was found that patients who are overweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) > 35kg/m2) or underweight (BMI<19kg/m2) took a longer time to conceive compared to women who are in the normal weight range (19-35kg/m2). It is then recommended that women who are overweight or obese to lose weight and women who are underweight to gain weight to reach the normal weight range so fertility can be improved. Women with higher BMI who undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF) also have less successful pregnancy rates when compared to those in the normal range. Although obesity does not affect men and the conception rates for their partners, it was found that the rates of having a live birth (a baby that is alive at delivery) is lower compared to couples with male partners of normal BMI.

                  The optimal diet for fertility is still mostly unknown but dietary modifications have been shown to improve infertility that is caused by ovulation problems. The consumption of chicken or turkey was associated with a higher rate of infertility due to ovulatory issues while the consumption of processed meats and fish was not associated with a greater rate of infertility. The intake of foods rich in vegetable protein showed a decreased risk of ovulatory disorder but it was not significant enough to be recommended to all patients.

                  Although there is limited evidence, current data showed that a high fertility diet consists of:

  1. Avoid trans-fat: this is a type of fat that clogs arteries and threatens fertility.
  2. Greater intake of monounsaturated fat: it helps improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin and reduce inflammation, both are good for fertility. Take more vegetable oil, nuts, seeds and cold water fish such as salmon and sardines.canstockphoto45942965
  3. Turn to vegerable protein: replacing meat with plant based protein such as soybeans, tofu, beans, peas or nuts can help improve fertility.
  4. Increased consumption of high-fiber, low glycemic carbohydrates: choose slow digesting carbohydrates that are rich in fiber such as whole grains, and vegetables. This improves fertility by controlling blood sugar and insulin levels.
  5. Intake of high-fat dairy products: whole milk instead of skim milk was found to improve fertility. Choose a small dish of ice cream of full fat yoghurt every day.
  6. High non-heme iron intake which are mostly plant based: this can be obtained from whole-grain cereals, spinach, beans, pumpkin, tomatoes and beets.
  7. Taking extra folic acid: helps with nutrition for a healthy pregnancy.
  8. Hydration: water is the best for hydration. Coffee and tea can be consumed in moderation. Sugared sodas should be avoided.


  • Chavarro JE, Willett WC, Skerrett PJ. Follow the fertility diet? Harvard Mental Health Letter. Harvard Health Publications. Accessed 2/1/2017.
  • Collins GG, Rossi BV. The impact of lifestyle modifications, diet, and vitamin supplementation on natural fertility. Fertility Research and Practice. 2015;1:11.